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In an age where globalization knows no boundaries, collaboration holds strong significance for nations to achieve. 

Collaboration’s are based on the principle that changed behaviour resulting from learning is fundamental to innovation. For learning to occur, knowledge must lead to action. Often, however, learning strategies tend to concentrate on creating knowledge and assume that action will automatically follow. Essentially, this leaves action or behavioural change to chance and opens the way for 'balancing' forces to maintain the normal. To counter this, it is necessary to anticipate and develop strategies to address these blocking forces. This involves the integration of change management and experiential learning processes that can best be achieved through the dynamics of Collaboration’s.



‘In the global context, “capacity” refers to the ability of individuals and institutions to make and implement decisions and perform functions in an effective, efficient and sustainable manner. At the individual level, capacity building refers to the process of changing attitudes and behaviours-imparting knowledge and developing skills while maximizing the benefits of participation, knowledge exchange and ownership. At the institutional level it focuses on the overall organisational performance and functioning capabilities, as well as the ability of an organization to adapt to change’.

Institutional Capacity Building addresses Capacity Building beyond the provision of education and training of professionals. It aims to enhance the capacity of governments, business, non-governmental groups and communities to plan and manage resources efficiently and effectively. It also aims to improve institutional arrangements for sustainable development. This implies addressing Capacity Building on a long-term, strategic level. Concepts such as leadership, awareness, and constituency building are part and parcel of institution building.



There are different definitions for both education and training. Within the context of the mission and vision of PIC, “education” is understood as the teaching of fundamental knowledge on a certain disciplinary field, whereas “training” refers to teaching of vocational or practical knowledge that relates to specific useful skills.

Thus, education differs from training fundamentally in the type of knowledge being taught. Nevertheless, there are other relevant differences such as the length of the courses (long educational courses vs. short training courses), or the target population (training courses usually focus on professionals that need to be introduced to new techniques, tools or skills in order to adapt to their changing working environment).

Education courses and programmes could be instrumental in tackling capacity building issues such as:

  • Bridging the gap between the current situation and the desired situation through educational programmes also dealing with, for example, the input of new technologies at different stages of the capacity building cycle

Training courses and programmes could be instrumental in tackling capacity building needs such as:

  • Enhancing capacity of government and decision-making
  • Creation of a critical mass of practitioners and policy makers that push a national capacity building strategy to the centre stage of the economic and social development goals of a country



For capacity building programmes to be effective they must be focused on the realistic needs and to be able to demonstrate the contribution it makes towards the overall success.

There are four steps to conducting Training Need Analysis:

  • Identify the desired goal
  • Identify the current situation
  • State the performance gap
  • Develop training solutions


Identify the Desired Goal
The first step in conducting training needs analysis is to identify your "desired goal" i.e. in an ideal world what tasks your staff would be able to perform and with what level of competency.

To do this you need to identify and list all the skills and knowledge which are required in your particular organisation. You will also need to include I.T. skills, personal skills, supervisory skills etc. in addition to the technical skills of your particular team.

Once all the skills and knowledge have been listed, you need to consider your team members and determine how many people and to what degree of competency you need them to do those tasks.
Once you have established your "desired situation" the second step is to do a similar process to look at your actual current situation.


Assess the Current Situation
You now need to analyse the level of competency each particular team member has.

It is advisable to do this in conjunction with the team member. It is important to note that you are looking at an individual's current level of competency and not at what they would like to have or think they should have.

Once all the individuals have been rated on separate sheets you will need to put all the scores on one overall summary sheet. This will make it much easier for you to compare your desired situation with your current situation.


State the Performance Gap
You now need to compare your desired situation with your current situation. Any discrepancies indicate your team's training needs. Because you went through the process of establishing the desired situation first i.e. what the team needs to operate competently, you can be sure that the training needs identified are based on real national needs.

One of the benefits of conducting training needs analysis in this way is that genuine training needs are identified.


Develop Training Solutions
Once you have analysed your training needs you need to formulate a training plan to show how those needs will be addressed. Not all training needs have to be satisfied by courses. If you can develop somebody through other methods such as coaching, distance learning, shadowing etc. then these should also be shown. The training plan should also show:

  • What training is required?
  • What the training outcomes are?
  • How the proposed training is linked to the national objectives?
  • How you will be able to evaluate the success of the training?
  • When and where training will be given?
  • Who is responsible for the training?

Formally conducting a Training Needs Analysis in this way and producing a training plan which is shown to be clearly linked to business objectives represents best practice in training.



  • Strengthening governance systems and institutions
  • Administrative restructuring, civil service reform
  • Human resources development and public administration training
  • Improving performance of the public sector
  • Increasing public and private-sector interaction
  • Promoting management innovation
  • Improving the management of development programmes
  • Enhancing government legal capacity, and strengthening the regulatory framework
  • Resource mobilization
  • Revenue administration
  • Financial management, and transparency and accountability through the provision of advisory services
  • Technical assistance in human resources development