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Strategic Vision in an Age of Uncertainty

Over the coming decade and beyond, world leaders will face enormously complex global security challenges. A mixture of enduring and emerging threats and challenges will mean that policymakers are increasingly operating into the unknown. We are witnessing fast-paced changes in our world. The new strategic environment in terms of the role of African nations in the political world, as well as their order, resulted in fundamental changes. In the midst of this extraordinarily dynamic and complex procedure, a primary responsibility of security policies is to simplify, systematize and define the most important factors necessary to minimally but sufficiently understand the current processes of our security. Within this context, the main challenge now is how to deal with Africa and the rest of the world while protecting the vital interests of our nations.

Strategic planning can no longer be performed in the traditional ways as depicted by those 'Political Science' giants of the past. External and internal security are closely interlinked and this means that security planning should be organised in a more interlinked manner too. Charting economic and social progress in modern societies depends on a clear vision and a strategy about how to get there. Wise political leaders know the direction in which they would like their societies to develop, balancing the interests of present and future generations. In order to build a bridge between the present and the future a document should be drafted which will accompany military and political strategy for future generations, maintaining a consistency in one's national vision. In other words, to develop a National Security Strategy.

In essence, national security includes (in addition to the military aspect) social, economic, geographic, cultural and political aspects. These aspects are decisive factors in the ability of the state to face a variety of challenges and to preserve its existence. This also includes everything needed for preventing revolutionary attempts on the existent regime by hostile forces from within, keeping the public order and assuring the public well- being. 

An intermediate definition would be that National Security involves mainly threats to the existence of a state or a national community, or threats upon interests crucial to its existence. It is a subjective term rather than an objective one, dynamic rather than static, relative rather than absolute. Notwithstanding that systems charged with upholding national security exist in every modern state and the motivating force behind them is the basic wish to survive. However, definitions of the essence of national security vary throughout the word. The media use the phrase most frequently to sell their story, as politicians us it to promote their political campaign. Generally speaking, every regime uses the idiom to support its own national and international policy. The definition is not always that important when the stability of civilian life as we know it is disrupted by one means or another. It is universally the case, however, that national security considerations and interpretation of these interests deeply influence the life of a nation – the standard of living, the extent of civic freedom, the allocation of resources and the decision as to who will monopolise the management and legitimate perpetration of violence on the nation’s behalf.

Nations have always faced threats and challenges related to their security, but have never taken the time to invest in a  National Security Strategy to uphold and support a national vision - a document that is intended to protect and promote the state's national interests. The term “national security concept” has gained a foothold in the context of a discussion of national security strategy that lacks any deep engagement with the definition of national objectives on the one hand, and the formulation of general principles of doctrine and policy in the field of national security on the other. Many nations has never distinctly agreed-upon national objectives in writing since the time of their independence, and there is no coherent, systematic, and significant discussion of security doctrine and policy.

A modern approach to this strategy requires to go beyond the traditional means. A 'strategy as a design' as being part of and continued by a 'strategy as a process'. An appropriate approach with the required balance of flexibility and significance to tackle calculated scenarios. In general, the methodology is developed upon the interests and values combined with scenarios, deriving assignments and tasks out of them. Addressing foreseeable threats, Governments need to analysing their institutional capabilities in response. The strategy consists of process, methods and products combined and communicated in a coherent way. However, the institutional question is who will be able and willing to develop and preserve the necessary capabilities supporting a long term strategic plan?

The uniqueness of a modern strategy is in its combination of scientific and political elements. Combining the credibility which characterises academia, and the practicality which characterises policy papers. By relying on modern and reliable methodology this provides credible initial products that present a first understanding of current trends in the National Security arena. And by focusing on finding a solution which is based on experiment it proves its relevance to our reality beyond any theoretical work, and creates a practical basis for a security policy.

Therefore, deriving a modern strategy which does not focus on the past but on the future by being Goal-Oriented instead of supporting the common perception of Solution-Orientation. Thus, it establishes a basis for national strategic planning. Altogether it offers a remedy for one of our nation's most crucial diseases: The Lack of Strategic Planning.

Rounding up 2010 and Prospects for 2011 – The Miracle of Light

Once again I am writing to you in the midst of a Jewish holiday Hanukkah. As the end of the year is upon us, this most likely will be the last letter for 2010.

Hanukkah celebrates the rededication of the Temple in Jerusalem in the 2nd Century BCE(BC) following the Maccabean Revolt (Maccabees where a Jewish rebel army) and a miracle that took place at that time. In the 2nd Century BCE (BC), the Maccabees rebelled against the Seleucid Empire – Greeks - which had conquered Judea. Their victory in the Rebellion meant that Judaism could be revived, and Jerusalem once again came under Jewish control and so the Temple, which had been partially destroyed (not to be confused with its destruction in 70CE (AD) by the Romans) was repaired and "re-consecrated."

Jewish temples - also known as synagogues - feature an eternal flame which is kept burning 24 hours a day, all year long. However, the Maccabees soon realised that they had only enough oil to keep the flame burning for a single day and it would take a week to make more. Miraculously, the oil they did have lasted for another seven days, giving them time to do so - light therefore is a central part of Hanukkah.

Judaism teaches that through our actions we draw and increase this Divine Light into the world or diminish its presence. During Hanukkah we are commanded to simply look at the light. All year long we are looking at what we see in the light, but on Chanukah we are to focus on seeing the light itself. We are to fill our eyes with the light of Hanukkah so that when Hanukkah is over, we will continue to see our lives in this special light. What is special about the light of Hanukkah?

When King Solomon wrote in his famous work, Ecclesiastes, "everything is vanity … nothing is new under the sun" he was talking about what it is like to see the world in the light of the sun, in the light of nature. But the Kabbalah, teaches us everything is new when seen in the light beyond the sun.

The light of Hanukkah is the light beyond the sun, it's the light beyond nature, it's the light of miracles. And what does the world look like in the light of miracles? The world looks like a miracle. In the light of nature nothing is new but in the light of miracles everything is new and novel. We fill our eyes with the light of Hanukkah for eight days, so that when the holiday is over, we see that everything is a miracle, we see that even nature is actually a miracle.

Albert Einstein once said: "There are two ways of looking at the world — either you see nothing as a miracle or you see everything as a miracle."

The Jews see everything as a miracle. The Greeks saw nothing as a miracle.

This is why Judaism irritated the Greeks so much that they decided to wipe it out. This is why we light candles on Hanukkah and bring the light of Hanukkah — the light of miracles — into our lives every year. On Hanukkah we are celebrating the light beyond the sun, the light of hope and miracles. We fill our eyes with that light so that we can use that light all year long, once we've internalized it within ourselves.

If you have knowledge, let others light their candles with it. ~Winston Churchill

Over the last year I have dedicated my expertise in supporting governmental institutes and training centres in Africa in assisting them to achieve high level programmes for themselves, taking their better interests to heart. This is very similar to my activities and achievements at the ICNSS, at Galillee College. By passing on this knowledge and experience onto centres that aim to accomplish national and regional development through their training programmes. The ultimate purpose of this assistance is to provide skills and knowledge through international exposure and international collaboration to accomplish organisational and national development at large.

In working with African governments, the request for topics is always different. It is determined by the actual partner, depending on their needs for capacity building programmes at a given time. To be effective they must be focused on the realistic needs and to be able to demonstrate the contribution it makes towards their overall success.

In preparation for 2011, I am in the process of creating a data base of professionals (academic and practical) from around the globe that may support us with these programmes in light of the distinguished research and contributions they have made in the field of strategic studies. The response has been profound and encouraging; from the office of the former Defence Secretary of the only global supper power, to Universities, institutes and organisations from around the world, all in support of African development within this framework.

Dare to reach out your hand into the darkness, to pull another hand into the light. ~Norman B. Rice

Promoting International Collaboration (PIC) is a strategic partner in assisting my African counterparts in achieving their goals, obtaining their vision of excellence of good governance and ethical practises. Holding a different perception to those with supremacy of any kind – military, political or economic, I have adopted a revolutionary new way of structuring, explaining, analyzing and teaching strategy, focusing on what African needs to succeed over all, and the social norm of conduct when dealing with the influential. The system can be used in a wide range of applications and is geared to uphold and endorse reform and improvement.

I invite you to develop your intuition and to take hold of good opportunities. We live in such a hectic society, that many times we are in such a hurry, that we don’t take the time to listen to our intuition and to analyze our situations to see if it could benefit us. The information that your intuition guides you to could drastically change and improve your life and the life of others. Success in government management comes from the accumulated experience and shared knowledge; from the organisation of people to work as a unit to plan, analyze and reflect; from strategic observation, communication and interaction with people who share the same strategic goals. As Albert Einstein said “The only real valuable thing is intuition.”

The learning model of the Promoting International Collaboration (PIC) is based on the process of inductive learning that goes far beyond the possession of facts and theories — it outlines a process that teaches top level government officials not only how to manage their offices, Ministries and Agencies, but also how to continually develop their inter-government coordination teams, units functions to achieve the country’s long term goals.

People are like stained-glass windows.  They sparkle and shine when the sun is out, but when the
darkness sets in their true beauty is revealed only if there is light from within.
~Elisabeth Kübler-Ross

Until international collaboration is promoted and attained, I would like to wish you and your colleagues a very happy festive season. May the New Year bring us closer together in support of one another, to create a better world for all, but more so for our future generations.
Leadership & Power in a New Year

On the 8th of September, the Jewish people will be celebrating the holiday of Rosh Hashanah at the end of the month Elul and the beginning of the month Tishri, signifying the Jewish New Year. The Hebrew letters in the word Bereshit "In the Beginning" can be rearranged to make the words 1 Tishri - the date of Rosh Hashanah. Then again, another says the world was created on 25 Elul, making Rosh Hashanah/1 Tishri fall on the sixth day of Creation - the day God made man. The logic being that the beginning of humanity marked the real beginning of Creation. Which is a nice thought! [1]

The significance of Rosh Hashanah is also its being the Day of Judgment. According to Jewish belief, throughout the year God judges all human beings, and by the time of Rosh Hashanah he decides whether they deserve to be inscribed in "The Book of Life" or not. Those who are inscribed in this book are rewarded with a new year of happiness. After Rosh Hashanah there are ten more days in which a person can change his or her behaviour enough for God to change his initial decision. Therefore, on the first day of the holiday it is customary to go to a lake or a river and symbolically "cast away" your sins into the water. In addition, Jews do soul searching and ask for forgiveness for anything that they have done wrong in the past year. [2]

At the main Rosh Hashanah meal the head of a fish is served to the head of the household as a symbol of his/her leadership and wisdom. Fish is the symbol of fertility and knowledge. Fish spawns copiously, that is why they are seen as a symbol of fertility. Moreover as they never close their eyes, they witness everything, that's why they also symbolize knowledge. During Rosh Hashanah, the fish is placed on the table in such a way that its head in facing towards the head of the family which is a way of saying 'Thank You' and to show appreciation for his/her leadership throughout the year. The head of a fish is a blessing for "being the head and not the tail", encouragement for leadership and initiative. However, this is also applicable to the Jewish nation as being at the head and not the tail. [3]

"Leadership is unlocking people's potential to become better.” - Bill Bradley

Most people are essentially passive, reacting to life's circumstances and going where life takes them. Life gives, and they receive and react. When you live from this perspective, you are separate from your life, a victim of your circumstances. The world is big and you are small. The world affects you, but you have no real power to affect the world.

But, if you choose, you can become a leader. Leadership is more challenging in the short run, but in the long run infinitely more rewarding. It doesn't start with prestige, power, or a following. It begins within you, with a decision. It begins with taking the time to get in touch with what you authentically want and taking empowered, inspired action to make it real. It means seeing yourself not as a mere recipient of whatever life doles out, but as the "cause of all effects" in your life. True, there is a God in the world, and He is the ultimate cause. But being a leader means that you relate to whatever happens to you and around you - that which God gives you - in the light of your vision of leadership, using those circumstances as the raw material, the springboard, toward bringing that vision to life. [4]

The “wrong idea” about leadership is reflected in the language that we frequently use to describe it. Sometimes we hear the phrase leadership position. This is a misleading combination of ideas. Leadership is not a position, it is a dynamic role arising from an action. Related to this idea of "position", sometimes we hear the phrase under a leader. People are not "under" a leader, if they are following a leader they are behind them. Leading means to be out in front. Leaders do not enjoy a position or power, they respond significantly to a necessity - in other words, they manifest responsibility. Due to the fact that they manifest this response to a need in the environment to a proportionally greater degree than those around them, they "lead" - they get out in front – the head. [5]

"Leadership appears to be the art of getting others to want to do something you are convinced should be done.” - Vance Packard

The essence of leadership is influence over others, but influence is not unidirectional. Power is the engine that drives the ability to influence. To understand leadership effectiveness therefore, an analysis of the complex web of power relationships and influence processes in organisations is essential. We also need to examine the sources of power and the relationship of different power sources to leadership effectiveness.

There are many different aspects, conditions and factors which influence leadership and its application. For all leaders, power, influence, and authority are important concepts. There is, however, little agreement on how these terms should be defined. In the more popular literature they are often used as synonyms. In the more technical literature they are usually more distinct. Both power and influence have to do with the ability to induce, encourage, or compel others to engage in activities and to support actions that the person exercising the power or influence wants them to engage in or support. The difference between power and influence is that power is related to the position one occupies in a group or organisation, whereas influence is related to the personal qualities and personal relationships of individuals in the group.

Power, on the one hand, derives from the fact that persons who occupy different positions in an organisation have access to different types of organizational resources and are in a position to deploy their resources in support of actions they wish to have supported. Influence, on the other hand, has to do with the way individuals react and respond to each other, the social bonds and social obligations that accrue as a result of these interactions, the persuasiveness of individual men and women, and the willingness of those who are the targets of persuasion to submit to suggestions and direction without the pressure of some organizationally controlled sanction. Persons who possess power in an organization do not necessarily have influence, and influential persons do not always possess power. However, power and influence do interact. Persons of demonstrated influence tend to accrue power, and people who have power tend to generate influence by virtue of the way they exercise the power they are authorized to exercise. [6]

Concepts of Power: [7]

  • Power refers to the ability to move someone else in a direction he or she would not have taken otherwise.
  • Force refers to the use of violence or some other form of punishment, so that it is one component of power.
  • Influence means getting the people in question to obey us by more or less rational persuasion .
  • Authority means obeying someone because they hold a formal position that is the sources of asking for obedience.
  • Manipulation refers to situations in which the people that we want to obey us do not even feel that they have a conflict between their will and ours.


Power and Politics:

The concepts of power and politics are entwined / inter-dependent in the sense that politics - whether of the specifically governmental kind (political parties, pressure groups, etc.), the economic kind (bureaucracies, the organization of the workplace into social hierarchies based upon status, etc.) or the interpersonal (relations between males and females, children and adults, etc) - involves the exercising of power.

What we have to begin by doing, therefore, is to define the concept of power (and understand the differing dimensions / aspects of power - coercive power, types of authority and so forth) and relate it to such ideas as:

  • a. The social characteristics of the powerful and the powerless.
  • b. The development of ideological frameworks that legitimise the exercise of power.
  • c. The social effects / consequences of the exercising of power.


Explicitly, in relation to politics and power there are two basic kinds of sociological question that we need to explore:

  • a. Who rules in society?
  • b. How is their power created, legitimised and reproduced?


In social terms, power, almost by definition, involves the rule by the few over the majority and we have to understand the political processes (both Structural and Interpersonal) whereby power is legitimated (the process whereby power ceases to be nakedly coercive and becomes power that is based upon authority. [8]

The question "What is Leadership?" is nearly synonymous with "What should a Leader be?"

Because we are more comfortable in the realm of existence than the realm of essence, disagreement over the identification of particular Leaders is apt to be more intractable than the problem of reaching a definition of leadership. We have personal commitments favouring and rejecting particular individuals as leaders and our confidence in those commitments serves a necessary purpose in guiding our own decisions to act. In an attempt to avoid these individualistic commitments, at least initially, I will begin my definition of leadership by considering it as pure form. This is not to say that I will abandon the search for a definition of leadership by locating it in an individual. I take the question "What is leadership?" to be nearly synonymous with "What should a leader be?" The individual referent, then, is also an ideal--the ideal leader. He is the ideal against which I judge all actual Leaders and the conceptual role model to which I aspire.

A leader should be responsible, compassionate, intelligent, just, wise, patient and energetic. In fact, I could develop a full list of virtues and, the longer the list the more completely I would have described the ideal leader. The ideal leader is a virtuous person, not just incidentally, but essentially.

A leader is one who has an irreversible effect on the life of another. The necessary conclusion of a monistic world-view is that we are all leaders, regardless of the recognition or failure to appreciate the effects that we inevitably have on each other's lives. But we are not leaders, all of the time. Leadership is the emerging activity of envisioning that arises out of the interrelation of individuals in a group. When the functioning of the group is healthy, we identify individuals within the group as leaders, though many leaders may exist within the group that we fail to identify. When the functioning of the group is pathological, we decry a lack of leadership. We erroneously equate this with a lack of individual leaders within the group. Leaders and leadership are related. One is the function of the other. Leadership, however, is not the functioning of leaders. Leadership is the function of a group and leaders are a function of leadership. [9]

I wish you all a Happy Jewish New Year and may you all be leaders - at the head and not the tail.
What happened to Honour and Integrity?

Corruption occurs in all parts of the world. More than US$ 1 trillion is paid in bribes every year, according to estimates by the World Bank Institute, and the costs of corruption in the developing world have reached approximately US$80 billion annually. Corruption significantly deters the development of markets, discourages investment, increases costs, reduces competitiveness, increases uncertainty, undermines the rule of law, and weakens the institutional foundations on which economic growth depends.

Increased global attention to the issue of corruption, and a growing concern among organisations looking for solutions to the problem, have opened up new avenues of inquiry. The sharing of knowledge, particularly experiences of what works, what doesn’t, and why, can help prevent duplication of effort and repetition of mistakes.[1]

“One must beware of ministers who can do nothing without money, and those who want to do everything with money.”
[Indira Gandhi]

An understanding of the concept of corruption, fraud and even sin helps us gain perspective on the totality of human existence. Through such understanding we are able to grasp the reason behind mans basic insecurity, with its accompaniment of overwhelming inferiority feelings or on the other tack, the cover-up for insecurity.[2]

Etymologically the word "corruption" comes from the Latin verb corruptus "to break"; past participle of corrumpere "to destroy" [com-, "together with", intensive prefix + rumpere, "to break"]. Conceptually, corruption is a form of behaviour, which departs from ethics, morality, tradition, law, and civic virtue.[3] Aristotle defines hamartia (sin) as, a missing of virtue, the desired goal, whether out of weakness, accident or defective knowledge. However, there was no thought of guilt involved. It took the usage of this word in the Septuagint (Greek version of the Jewish scriptures) to invest it with the idea of being an offense against God.[4]

Over the past two decades increasing perceptions of falling ethical standards in legislatures have led in many advanced democracies to the introduction of ethics frameworks for elected officials. Scandals such as those surrounding cash-for-questions have pushed lawmakers to regulate themselves in contexts as different as the United Kingdom and India, and international conventions, in particular the United Nations Convention Against Corruption now oblige all signatories to introduce codes of conduct and other mechanisms to tackle conflicts of interest.

However, the mechanisms introduced in many countries – and particularly transitional or developing democracies - are not always based on a clear understanding of the concept of conflict of interest itself or of the need to regulate elected officials, civil servants and members of the government differently, and tend to underestimate the difficulties of implementation and enforcement.[5]

"Conflict of interest" is a situation in which a public official has a private or other interest which is such as to influence, or appear to influence, the impartial and objective performance of his or her official duties. "Corruption is the behaviour of private individuals or public officials who deviate from set responsibilities and use their position of power in order to serve private ends and secure private gains." (Lebanon Anti-Corruption Initiative Report, 1999). Both titles define the same objective and fraudulent act of dishonesty.

Economic theories of corruption focus on decisions made by public servants and private citizens endeavouring to maximize their own expected incomes or profits, while being constrained by institutions designed to deter the former and the latter form encouraging the former form abusing their positions thus and causing harm to society as a result. These models suggest that when the private returns to corruption are high or due to weak institutions, the likelihood or consequences of detection are limited, individuals are more inclined to act corruptly. Further, because finding a partner with whom to engage in a corrupt transaction are escaping detection or punishment becomes easier as the proportion of individuals who are corrupt increases, multiple equilibria involving different levels of corruption are likely to exist.[6]

The questions is why corruption develops varies from one country to the next?
Among the contributing factors, there are:

  • faulty government and development policies;
  • programmes that are poorly conceived and managed; failing institutions;
  • inadequate checks and balances; an undeveloped civil society;
  • a weak (corrupt) criminal justice system;
  • inadequate civil servants' remuneration;
  • and a lack of accountability and transparency.


In most cases; however, these are symptoms rather than causes of corruption. In any case, we consider them as correlations of corruption since corruption is likely to occur when any of these conditions exist, but it is not always necessary that there will be corruption where any of them is found.

A serious obstruction to the success of any anti-corruption strategy is a corrupt judiciary. A corrupt judiciary means that the legal and institutional mechanism designed to curb corruption; however, well-targeted, efficient or honest, remains crippled. Unfortunately mounting evidence is steadily surfacing of widespread judicial corruption in many parts of the world. Insufficient attention has been given to the integrity of the judiciary and the broader criminal justice system.[7]

“A man of honour should never forget what he is because he sees what others are.”
[Baltasar Gracian]

Challenges Ahead:

  • Anti-corruption concepts, such as integrity, transparency, and accountability, are poorly understood by public sector officials, private companies and the citizenry alike, posing a challenge to the fight against corruption. Government officials often have difficulty in grasping these concepts and finding ways to make them part of their oversight practices.
  • There is a need for greater cooperation among the main governance stakeholders in order to strengthen the national integrity system as a means of facilitating good governance.
  • The absence of important systematic pillars is evident upon examination of the entire National Integrity Systems. While there are certain institutions which can be called upon by citizens to report malpractice by public authorities in Africa, in none of the countries is an ombudsman institution with full powers in place While the governments in African countries have implemented programmes to address the roots of corruption, both public and private watchdogs are not always free from political interference in their work. Political interference comes most often from the executive branch, which in each country is able to influence many of the public oversight agencies.
  • There have been a number of legislative anti-corruption reforms across the region, which can be seen as evidence of increased attention to the issue of fighting corruption. However, a closer look reveals that many of these legislative reforms fall short of proven mechanisms to ensure accountability and transparency.
  • Another key challenge to effectively addressing corruption in Africa is the lack of effective and well-functioning whistle blowing mechanisms. Such mechanisms allow witnesses of corruption and other forms of malpractice to report these cases to the relevant authorities without having to fear reprisals. The protection of these whistleblowers from negative consequences is central to any successful anti-corruption effort, as evidenced by the prominence given to the issue of whistleblower protection in the United Nations Convention Against Corruption.
  • Conflict of interest laws are important in order to instil integrity in government practices, as such laws regulate how to deal with situations where a public official might also have private interests which could influence his or her public duties. However, across Africa, these laws are either absent or inadequate to achieve this goal. Problems concerning conflict of interest emerge in a number of national integrity system pillars, especially in those which are related to political and economic activities, such as public procurement, the business sector and civil service.
  • Public access to information is extremely limited across Africa. Comprehensive laws on the freedom of information are missing and those laws which do address rights to access information do not contain enforcement provisions which could be used to ensure the compliance of reluctant institutions. This lack of access to information compromises transparency and meaningful public participation and hinders the public’s ability to uncover corrupt practices. This is particularly problematic for the media, as it restricts journalists’ ability to investigate suspicions of corruption without encountering legal obstacles.[8]


Due to its exclusionary aspects, corruption is one of the main threats to emerging democracies. Cultural and institutional theories provide contrasting explanations of the origins of corruption and different predictions about the prospects for democracy. Studies support both explanations of corruption. This suggests that it is absolutely essential to recognize Africans’ ambivalence about corruption. Their acute dissatisfaction with the most amoral forms of corruption is produced in relation to experiences with institutions associated with the state, examples of people and organisations with a reputation for integrity are well known. Yet even as ordinary people participate in corruption and recognize that the trappings and facade of the state are manipulated in a politics of illusion, rising expectations are created regarding the very institutions and ideals that are perceived to be provided only as fakes. In other words, despite the fact that the pretence of democracy and development are employed to facilitate corruption, people in the region increasingly judge the performance of their state and the circumstances in their society based on aspirations associated with these ideals.

Although the widespread corruption in sub-Saharan Africa can be partially explained by the value system and cultural codes such as redistributive accumulation through Patrimonialism, which permit a justification of corruption by those who practice it, the increasing popular confidence in state institutions can diminish the likelihood that citizens will pay a bribe to government officials to get public services. We can conclude that corruption is, in part, a cultural phenomenon.

Understanding of both stable and variable conditions that may affect or alter corruption, thereby providing policy makers with a basis for reducing the levels of corruption in developing countries. Findings are relevant in terms of the formulation of public policy that targets corruption through the provision of increased fairness, honesty and accountability.[9]

"Integrity is not a conditional word. It doesn't blow in the wind or change with the weather. It is your inner image of yourself, and if you look in there and see a man who won't cheat, then you know he never will."[John D. MacDonald]

The famous phrase scientia potentia est is a Latin maxim "For also knowledge itself is power" stated originally by Francis Bacon in Meditationes Sacrae (1597), which in modern times is often paraphrased as "knowledge is power."The phrase implies that with knowledge or education one's potential or abilities in life will certainly increase. Having and sharing knowledge is widely recognised as the basis for improving one's reputation and influence, thus power. This phrase may also be used as a justification for a reluctance to share information when a person believes that withholding knowledge can deliver to that person some form of advantage. It is possible that Bacon was paraphrasing Proverbs 24:5: "A wise man has great power, and a man of knowledge increases strength." Another possible meaning for this phrase can be found in philosophical idealism - if the world exists solely as the content of consciousness, then knowledge itself can be used to directly manipulate the content of reality.[10]

PIC is committed to conveying knowledge, skills and experience to an African audience, based on upholding an African interest. However, the above topic on corruption and fraud hinder or vision and good intentions in supporting African countries through collaboration. A larger percentage of our addressees are hesitant to commit to a partnership based on their awareness and understanding of foreigners and local alleged substantiating organisations offering assistance and cooperation. The majority of African Governments and organisations know me from my previous position as the Director of the International Centre for National Security Studies (ICNSS) over the past eight years and of the high level international programmes which I have designed. I am able to offer a personal references from within your country that will portray the authentication of the good intentions that I have, directed towards Africa's development. I recommend that you correspond with me directly on problem areas within your organisation, country or region in order to familiarise yourself with PIC and our works among the nations. You will find an establishment of moral integrity and stature, transparent and accountable, powerful in sharing knowledge.
Rethinking Human Security in the context of WATER!

Over the last two decades, the international community has begun to conclude that attempts to ensure the territorial security of nation-states through military power have failed to improve the human condition.  Despite astronomical levels of military spending, deaths due to military conflict have not declined.  Moreover, even when the borders of some states are secure from foreign threats, the people within those states do not necessarily have freedom from crime, enough food, proper health care, education, or political freedom.  In response to these developments, the international community has gradually moved to combine economic development with military security and other basic human rights to form a new concept of “human security”.

One of the basic living conditions is water and water is the ultimate resource. Without water, life could not be sustained upon our planet. Although 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered by it, only 2.5% of all water is fresh – of which most is precariously locked in glaciers and permanent snowfields. This leaves only 0.26% of the planet’s water available to support humankind. Of this tiny 0.26%, nearly all (>90%) is held in soil as groundwater, in the pore spaces of rocks beneath our feet. To amplify the limitations of freshwater, only about half of it is available for use by the ever-increasing population of the world that is approaching six billion.

The Latin origin of the word river was riparia, and represented the banks of the river instead of the water. The older Latin version has not completely disappeared, however, and remains mostly in legal terms related to the rights of those who control the banks of the river, called riparian rights. Closely related is the word rival, those who share a common stream. The original meaning was closer to our present word for companion, but as words have a way of doing, began to be applied to the competition that so often happens between persons seeking a common goal.

Water is the mainspring of civilization. This was recognized at the dawn of civilization in Mesopotamia and Egypt. Water was conceived as the source of all things, eternal and primeval. Civilizations are constrained directly by the quality and quantity of available safe drinking and subsistence water. They are also constrained indirectly by the influence of water on food, energy, transportation, and industry.

Human societies have throughout history found new means to secure availability of water where they settled. They have devised ingenious methods to harvest, transport, and store rainwater, spring water, groundwater, and even air moisture. Human societies will thus continue to search for new sources of water, but the cost of procuring water is a function of the combined cost of extraction/harvesting, transportation, treatment, storage, and delivery. There is thus inevitably an economic aspect of water availability. As water scarcity increases, the cost of water also increases. Accordingly, the fundamental issues throughout history have been: can we afford to meet the increasing cost of waterworks? who pays?, and who benefits? These questions imply that there are various social and political aspects to water economics. In turn, social issues are never divorced from beliefs concerning the world, the social order, and ethics.

This leads to the further conclusion that current water scarcities cannot be overcome simply by new technologies. All technological innovations aimed to relieve water scarcity are embedded in a social and an ideological matrix. All such innovations also have an impact on society and its ideology. [Fekri A. Hassan- Institute of Archaeology UCL]

As the future hurtles towards us, we will see even greater threats to human security borne of our ecological interdependence. The world is facing a threefold increase in energy use by 2050. World demand for fresh water has doubled over the last 50 years, and the number of people living in water-stressed countries is expected to increase to 3 billion by 2025. As global production, consump­tion, and population expand, so too will the competition for increasingly scarce resources. At the same time, the worst effects of climate change will reverberate in the world’s poor­est countries, which bear the least responsi­bility for global warming and have the least capacity to manage its impact.

There are growing concerns that water shortages and limited or unequal access to water could lead to conflicts within countries and possibly between countries in the near future. Water shortages will also lead to an increase in migration, causing millions of people to move between counties to seek new sources of water. The UN estimates that by 2025 two out of three of the world's population will live in water stressed conditions. This is based upon the assumption that the world population is growing by 80 million per annum which means that we will have to find additional 64bn cubic meters of water a year.

Competition for water exists at all levels (among uses and among users, cities vs. agriculture, hydropower and fisheries, dams/irrigation and delta environments) and will increase with demand in almost all countries. Water scarcity can become the focus of tensions, which may potentially spill over into conflicts. Of the 47 nations regarded as being either water stressed or water scarce in 2007, 25 are regarded as facing a high risk of armed conflict or political instability.

No two conflicts are the same. The factors that cause tension in one country or region to boil over into violent conflict will not mirror those in another. Nor will any two conflicts require the same interventions to prevent violence, bring it to an end, or to stop it recurring. Our understanding of the drivers and implications of instability and violent conflict and how to reduce conflict continues to develop. For example, the likely consequences of climate change, such as migration, crop failure, damage to energy infrastructure, decreasing fresh water supplies and increasing poverty, could continue to displace populations and exacerbate existing conflict in already vulnerable regions.

The world’s climate will continue to change with increasing global temperatures and changing rainfall patterns. Such changes will increase the risks to human society and the natural environment with increasing pressure on health, water resources, agriculture and human settlements. Over the next twenty years these effects will be manageable but beyond that, the risk of dangerous impacts will increase strongly. We need to act now to mitigate the most dangerous consequences and adapt to those we cannot prevent, because in the longer term, climate change will act as a global threat multiplier, exacerbating existing weaknesses and tensions around the world.

The world’s population will continue its rapid increase, which, combined with rising living standards worldwide will increase demand for food and energy by up to 50 per cent and water by up to 30 per cent over a 20 year period. This will bring new challenges for regional stability in key areas affected.

Water security is the gossamer that links together food, energy, climate, economic growth and human security challenges that the world faces. Achieving a water secure Africa requires:
• Water policies and plans to be incorporated into national and international development processes;
• World leaders and funding agencies to appreciate that, in the long term, investment in water, is an opportunity and a solution rather than a problem.
• Partnerships for action and innovation at all levels among communities, nations, river basins, and globally;
• Going beyond what is normally considered “water business”. This will entail major changes in the way that sectors (e.g. water supply and sanitation, agriculture, energy, industry) and human settlements are managed;
• Balancing social, environmental and economic priorities as well as balancing “soft” (institutional) and “hard” (infrastructure) solutions such as investments, small and large scale, in storing and transporting water and in protecting the resource itself.

Managing and investing in water is cost-effective: it delivers immediate benefits as well as long-term social, economic and environmental resilience. Today’s investments in water should be seen as part of a strategy to build a climate resilient world: mitigating against floods, droughts and other threats, while contributing right now to poverty reduction and sustainable development.

The Israeli water market is globally known as a well-developed market. With 60 years of experience, Israel is considered a world expert in the fields of desalination, water treatment and reclamation, water safety, and agricultural water consumption via drip irrigation – an Israeli innovation.
Technology Highlights:
1) The largest desalination plant in the world, located in Ashkelon. Produces a cubic meter of water for about 60 cents.
2) With 75% of the country’s water reused, Israel is the world leader in its percentage of recycled water. (The second largest water recycler is Spain at 12%)
3) Israel’s revolutionary drip and low pressure irrigation systems helped achieve the highest rate of water efficiency in agriculture in the world, at 70-80%

In continuation with the mission of PIC, we are offering in country tainting programmes, upon request with potential collaborators, providing effective solutions to water management programmes within the sectors of:
• Agriculture – Water Management & Arid Land Cultivation
• Environmental Management – Groundwater and Desertification towards Sustainable Development
• Rural Development - Water Resources Management and Irrigation
• Urban Development – Water recycling, Drainage & Catchment, Detention Basins and Permanent Ponds
• Peace building and Conflict Resolution
• Crisis and Mass Disaster Management
• Strategic Studies – National Security

Programmes will be tailor-made with partners for effective implementation.
Confronting Africa’s Migration Situation - Is there a Solution to this Movement?

According to an article from HumanSecurity-Cities.org, in the 21st century, 90 percent of conflicts are now taking place within states, people are now much more likely to be killed or injured as a result of the failure of a state to maintain the rule of law within its own territory than its inability to defend its borders from attacks by other states.

Unlike Costa Rica, we do not have the luxury of eliminating the military forces from our nation’s constitution. However, we are able to divert the activities of our MoD towards many of these evolving issues of human security in an urban era. Many local governments lack the capacity to provide security for rapidly growing urban populations. In some cities, security forces include teenage boys who have had only a few days of training, and lack basic equipment such as handcuffs, flashlights and helmets. Many security forces are also unable to recruit enough officers to keep up with the needs of growing cities, producing alarmingly low police-to-citizen ratios. The population of Cité Soleil, a two-square-kilometre slum in the Haitian capital of Port-au-Prince, grew from 1,000 in the 1960s to an estimated 350,000 in 2003. This growth strained the central government’s ability to meet the needs of its citizens in a context of already weak state capacity. The failure of public security also occurs in some slums because security forces are unwilling to provide it. Some urban areas are considered simply too dangerous to enter.

Migration increasingly impacts countries’ stability in various ways:
•• Migration may threaten the sovereignty of a host country with uncontrolled mass migration violating border control and sovereign territory.
•• Migration threatens host countries’ economies. High immigration is a burden to a country’s infrastructure and increases competition for local resources (land, fuel, water). It can even cause conflict and thus hamper development.
•• Extremist immigrants may abuse receiving countries as safe havens for planning assaults, with radical immigrants even recruiting support in their host countries.
•• Migrants may also be perceived as a threat to cultural identity. In closed ethnicities, migration may lead to the discrimination and suppression of minorities.

Although prevention is the preferable policy approach, interior enforcement plays an essential role in ensuring that persons who pose security threats are unable to do harm to a country. Tracking of foreign citizens is one element of an interior enforcement strategy. Finding foreign citizens who may pose security threats can be difficult. Countries attempt to track the presence of foreign citizens within their territories through registration requirements, checks of identity documents, and systems for matching entry and exit from the country.

International terrorism/organised crime organisations are, because of their cross-border dimensions, a migration issue. They touch on a range of matters directly affecting migration policy, including: border integrity (entry and/or residence with illicit intent), national security, integration, ethnic/ multicultural affairs, and citizenship. While international criminal organisations are not the only threat to State security that affects these areas, it is currently an important focus for policy development.

While immigration policy may not be central to countering these organisations, it can be an important way to address it, particularly by facilitating better application of intelligence and law enforcement. Immigration authorities can contribute to national and international intelligence through direct encounters with migrants, both legal and illegal, and through partner networks with other law enforcement and immigration agencies. Broader migration policy can also help address aspects of social stability in diverse societies to reduce the potential for ethnic or other conflicts.

An overview of the policy context and policy options to manage the development impacts of migration suggest that there is much to be done. Given that the migration-development nexus involves ever more complex flows of people, money and Diasporas linkages, the scale of the challenge facing policymakers is immense. One-size-fits-all interventions and “easy wins” will be rare if not impossible in this area. And for any intervention to be effective there needs to be cooperation from a range of organisations with direct interest, not just decision and policymakers in government positions, but also multilateral agencies, NGOs and the private sector.

Adapting to today’s world and achiev­ing sustainable security requires that we pursue not only our national security, but also global and human security. This more modern approach can afford us the abil­ity to deal simultaneously with short-term, nation-state based threats and with the global challenges that transcend state bor­ders. Importantly, this sustainable security approach allows us to lead from a posi­tion of moral strength.  PIC is offering African countries training programmes to surveys several approaches to human security but focuses on the ethical, analytical, policy and operational dimensions of the mass migration phenomena occurring in Africa today.

The various seminars pay special attention to the idea of the “responsibility to protect” as developed by the State Sovereignty. The basis of the course is that the “responsibility to protect” concept marks a potential turning point in the theory and practice of human security. It is far from universally accepted but nevertheless opens fundamental issues related to trans-boundary obligations of states, citizens and civil societies; relations between states and citizens; principles of sovereignty and non-interference; and instruments for global governance including the new diplomacy of coalitions of the willing.

I have attached a basic outline of a programme targeting many of these migration issues from an “intelligence and security” perspective. This is just to emphasise the importance of required collaboration between African nations to counter this occurrence. Obviously, there is so much more that needs to be done on different levels of policy making: Education and Health services, Youth Development, water management, rural and urban planning, and it goes on and on......

Please note that all of these programmes will be offered upon request by States and regional organisations, held within their countries. The purpose for this is to enable as many people to partake at a feasible cost, bringing as many stakeholders together in dealing with the situation.

 


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